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Glossary
Knowledge-Workflow Architecture
ADL (Advanced Distributed Learning)
  An US Department of Defense initiative to achieve interoperability of courseware through a common technical structure, which has reusable learning content.
Assessment:
  The process of documenting in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, beliefs and attitudes.
Blog:
  A Web site on which items are regularly posted and displayed in reverse chronological order, and is a shortened form of web log.
Competency management:
  Supports HR functions such as selection, training, succession planning, performance, and professional development. Focus is on investment in people for payoffs in performance, in turn, for business results.
CMS (Content Management System)
  A computer software that helps to organize and to facilitate collaborative creation of documents, content, and publishing process. It also means the use of Web application that manages Web sites and Web content.
CORDRA (Content Object Repository Discovery and Registration/Resolution Architecture )
  A model that aims to improve access to learning by identifying and specifying appropriate technologies and existing interoperability standards to make content ubiquitous.
EPSS: (Electronic Performance Support Systems)
  An integrated electronic environment that is available to empower an employee, and is structured to provide quick, customized online access to a wide variety of supportive tools to perform tasks with minimal support, intervention or training by others.
ILT (Information Learning Technology)
  Describes the methods of using technology to enhance the learning experience and learner’s attention. For example, movies or audio clips in a PowerPoint presentation.
IMS (Instructional Management System)
  A collection of government organizations that aim to explain and distribute specifications (open architecture interoperability) for e-learning products.
Instructional design:
  Involves learning needs analysis and development of systematic instruction to facilitate the transfer of skills, knowledge and attitude.
Knowledge management (KM):
  Technological and human applications that create, organize or share knowledge.
LCMS (Learning Content Management Systems):
  Provides sequencing, authoring and aggregation that structure content for the learning process.
LMS (Learning Management Systems):
  Enable organizations to plan and assess the learning needs and accomplishments of employees, customers, and partners, and are critical to facilitating the widespread adoption of e-learning within companies.
Mashup
  A Mashup (web application hybrid) is a website or web application that seamlessly combines content from more than one source into an integrated experience. Content used in mashups is typically sourced from a third party through a public interface or API. Other methods of sourcing content for mashups include Web feeds (RSS or Atom) and JavaScript.
Mobile learning:
  Successor to e-learning practices. Mobile devices such as laptop computers, hand-held PDAs (personal digital assistants) and cell phones, which allow greater degree of access to learning resources irrespective of constraints related to distance, time and location, pivot mobile learning.
Moodle:
  An open-source e-learning platform and designed to help educators in the design of online courses.
Open Source
  The open source paradigm facilitates for the concurrent use of different goals and methods in production and development to promote access for end product sources, unlike the more isolated models.
Sakai Project:
  An open-source educational project that is creating and releasing e-learning course management, collaboration and research team support software. At present in production at University of Michigan and Indiana University and as pilots at a number of places.
SCORM (Sharable Courseware Object Reference Model)
  A most important e-learning standard today. A suite of specifications and standards from multiple sources for learning systems for interoperability, accessibility and reusability of Web-based learning content.
Sequencing
  A set of rules for a learner that mention an order of content objects.
S1000d (Technical Documentation Standard)
  A new technical publication standards for civil and military aviation. An initiative of Air Transport Association (ATA), Aerospace and Defense Industries Association of Europe (ASD), and Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) for a common, single documentation standards as planes in military and civil have similar issues.
Wiki:
  A type of Web site that allows users to add and edit easily content, especially for collaborative writing, and also referred to collaborative software itself (wiki engine) that manages such Web site.
Workflow learning:
  A new type of learning technology that emerged in 2002 to optimize business performance and to advise, inform and help employees to perform tasks well with unique software. It leverages Web services to embed e-learning functionality into business applications.

Information Technology (IT)
AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)
  A Web development methodology to create interactive Web applications to increase a Web page’s interactivity, speed, and usability.
BPM (Business Process Management):
  A collection of activities – modeling and automating -- to increase profitability or to adapt to changing, new organizational needs. Often these activities are viewed as software tools.
CRM (Customer Relationship Management)
  A set of business processes and strategies that are oriented on customer needs, especially the integration and automation of various services to serve the customer better.
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
  A system that integrates operations, production and distribution functions of a company into a single system, and caters to the needs of each department. It is a methodology that includes several software applications for a unified, integrated interface.
EAI (Enterprise Application Integration)
  EAI enables business process execution, inter-application communication and data propagation through various distinct networked applications that exploits the Internet, e-commerce, extranet, and other new technologies. EAI is a distributed transactional approach and aims to support operational business functions such as taking an order, generating an invoice, shipping a product, linking customer education to customer relationship management, etc.

EAI may involve in developing a new perspective for enterprises and its business processes and related software applications, exploring and analyzing how existing applications could fit into the new integrated perspective. Methodologies include enterprise resource planning (ERP), XML, Web Services, middleware, message queuing, object-oriented programming, distributed, cross-platform program communication and other approaches.

Flash (Adobe)
  Refers to both Adobe Flash Player and to a multimedia authoring program that creates content. Adobe Flash is an integrated development environment (IDE), and Adobe Flash Player is used to run the Flash files.
HRIS (Human Resource Management System):
  A software application that manages the employees and information about them – contact, payroll, benefits, and performance information. It is usually has some marginal utility for reporting and competency management.
Meta-tag
  HTML elements that provide structured metadata about a Web page, and they are placed as tags.
RDBMS (Relational Database Management System)
  A database management system where data is organized into tables with related columns and rows for easy manipulation and use.
SOA (Service Oriented Architecture)
  An architectural concept for parts of a system and their relations between them -- the supporting services of software users. SOA often use the Web services in its implementation.
Web Service:
  A software system that enables interoperable machine-to-machine interaction on a network.
XAML
  Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML) pronounced "Zammel" is a declarative XML-based language used to define objects and their properties, relationships and interactions. XAML is used extensively in the .NET Framework 3.0 technologies where it is used as a user interface markup language to define UI elements, data binding, eventing, and other features, and in Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) in which workflows themselves can be defined using XAML.

XAML - is the revolutionary new model of Internet-based computing that is being adopted widely by all major systems and software vendors.

XML (Extensible Markup Language)
  A simple and very flexible markup language, and facilitates and playing an important role in the sharing of data on Internet.
XQuery (W3C XML Query)
  XQuery provides flexible query facilities to extract data from real, virtual documents, and collections both locally and on the World Wide Web. Thus, finally providing the much needed interaction between the web and the database worlds.

XQuery or XML Query Language is a W3C specification. XQuery is a query language that uses the structure of XML intelligently. It can express queries across all kinds of data, whether physically stored in XML or viewed as XML via middleware. XQuery is designed to be broadly applicable across many types of XML data sources.


Healthcare
CCR (Continuity of Care Record )
  A standard for summary of a patient data that clinicians use when a patient is referred. Flexible documents contain core health information about a patient that can be timely retrieved.
EMR (Electronic Medical Record)
  A term for computer-based patient record systems. Some of the functions are easy access of patient data by clinical staff, reliable claims processing, automated alerts for drug and allergies, prescriptions, clinical notes, lab results, etc.
HL7 (Health Level 7)
  An ANSI standard for application protocol for clinical data in healthcare institutions. The standard supports clinical practice, management, delivery and assessment of health services.

Finance
Sarbanes-Oxley:
  Also known as the Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act of 2002 (known commonly SOX or Sarbox) is a United States federal law that outlines issues establishing company oversight board, auditor independence, corporate governance, and improved financial disclosure. Read More...